Mini-VGA connectors are a non-standard, proprietary alternative used on some laptops and other systems in place of the standard VGA connector, although most laptops use a standard VGA connector. Apple,HP and Asus have separate implementations using the same name. Apart from its compact form, mini-VGA ports have the added ability to output both composite and S-Video in addition to VGA signals through the use of EDID. The mini-DVI and now Mini DisplayPort connectors have largely replaced mini-VGA. (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mini-VGA)
Video Graphics Array (VGA) Connector
A Video Graphics Array (VGA) connector is a three-row 15-pin DE-15 connector. The 15-pin VGA connector was provided on many video cards, computer monitors, laptop computers, projectors, and high definition television sets. On laptop computers or other small devices, a mini-VGA port was sometimes used in place of the full-sized VGA connector.
Many devices still include VGA connectors, although VGA generally coexisted with DVI as well as the newer and more compact HDMI and DisplayPort interface connectors. (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/VGA_connector)
Digital Visual Interface (DVI) Connector
Digital Visual Interface (DVI) is a video display interface developed by the Digital Display Working Group (DDWG). The digital interface is used to connect a video source, such as a video display controller, to a display device, such as a computer monitor. It was developed with the intention of creating an industry standard for the transfer of digital video content.
The interface is designed to transmit uncompressed digital video and can be configured to support multiple modes such as DVI-A (analog only), DVI-D (digital only) or DVI-I (digital and analog). Featuring support for analog connections, the DVI specification is compatible with the VGA interface. This compatibility, along with other advantages, led to its widespread acceptance over competing digital display standards Plug and Display (P&D) and Digital Flat Panel (DFP). Although DVI is predominantly associated with computers, it is sometimes used in other consumer electronics such as television sets and DVD players. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Digital_Visual_Interface)
The Mini-DVI Connector
The Mini-DVI connector is used on certain Apple computers as a digital alternative to the Mini-VGA connector. Its size is between the full-sized DVI and the tiny Micro-DVI. It is found on the 12-inch PowerBook G4 (except the original 12-inch 867 MHz PowerBook G4, it used Mini-VGA), Intel-based iMac, the MacBook Intel-based laptop, the Intel-based Xserve, the 2009 Mac mini, and some late model eMacs.
The physical connector is similar to Mini-VGA, but is differentiated by having four rows of pins arranged in two vertically stacked slots rather than the two rows of pins in the Mini-VGA. (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mini-DVI)
The Micro-DVI port is a proprietary video output port found in the original MacBook Air. It is smaller than the Mini-DVI port used by its MacBook models.
To use the port for displaying video on a standard monitor or television, an adapter must be used. Both a Micro-DVI to DVI adapter and a Micro-DVI to VGA adapter were bundled with the original MacBook Air. A Micro-DVI to Video adapter, which provided composite and S-video outputs, was also sold separately. The Micro-DVI to DVI adapter is only compatible with a DVI-D (digital) signal; DVI-A and DVI-I signals do not work as they do not have the required analog connections. (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Micro-DVI)
HDMI (High-Definition Multimedia Interface)
HDMI (High-Definition Multimedia Interface) is a proprietary audio/video interface for transmitting uncompressed video data and compressed or uncompressed digital audio data from an HDMI-compliant source device, such as a display controller, to a compatible computer monitor, video projector, digital television, or digital audio device. HDMI is a digital replacement for analog video standards.
Several versions of HDMI have been developed and deployed since initial release of the technology, but all use the same cable and connector. Other than improved audio and video capacity, performance, resolution and color spaces, newer versions have optional advanced features such as 3D, Ethernet data connection, and CEC (Consumer Electronics Control) extensions.
The HDMI specification is not an open standard; manufacturers need to be licensed by HDMI LLC in order to implement HDMI in any product or component. Companies who are licensed by HDMI LLC are known as HDMI Adopters.(https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/HDMI)
DisplayPort (DP) is a digital display interface developed by a consortium of PC and chip manufacturers and standardized by the Video Electronics Standards Association (VESA). The interface is primarily used to connect a video source to a display device such as a computer monitor, and it can also carry audio, USB, and other forms of data.
DisplayPort was designed to replace VGA, DVI, and FPD-Link. The interface is backward compatible with other interfaces, such as HDMI and DVI, through the use of either active or passive adapters. (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/DisplayPort)
Mini DisplayPort (MiniDP or mDP)
The Mini DisplayPort (MiniDP or mDP) is a miniaturized version of the DisplayPort audio-visual digital interface.
It was announced by Apple in October 2008. As of 2013, all new Apple Macintosh computers had the port, as did the LED Cinema Display. However, in 2016 Apple began phasing out the port and replacing it with the new USB-C connector. The Mini DisplayPort is also fitted to some PC motherboards, and some PC notebooks from Asus, Microsoft, MSI, Lenovo, Toshiba, HP, Dell, and other manufacturers.
Unlike its Mini-DVI and Micro-DVI predecessors, the Mini DisplayPort can drive display devices with resolutions up to 2560×1600 (WQXGA) in its DisplayPort 1.1a implementation, and 4096×2160 (4K) in its DisplayPort 1.2 implementation. With an adapter, the Mini DisplayPort can drive display devices with VGA, DVI, or HDMI interfaces. (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mini_DisplayPort)
USB-C, also known as USB Type-C, is a 24-pin USB connector system, which is distinguished by its two-fold rotationally-symmetrical connector. The USB-C connectors connect to both hosts and devices, replacing various USB-B and USB-A connectors and cables with a standard meant to be future-proof.
This new pin layout has some implications for both data transfer speeds and power delivery. In terms of speeds, USB Type-C was designed to offer the same speeds as USB 3.1/Gen2, hitting up to 10 Gbit/s data transfers. That’s twice as fast as a standard USB 3.0 port that offers 5 Gbit/s and more than 20x faster than USB 2.0’s 480 Mbit/s data speeds. (https://www.androidauthority.com/what-is-usb-type-c-594575/)